• Nurul Hijja Mazlan Faculty of Communication and Media Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia
  • Wardatul Hayat Adnan Faculty of Communication and Media Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia
  • Suffian Hadi Ayub Faculty of Communication and Media Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia and Centre of Excellence for Social Innovation & Sustainability, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6303-9709
  • Mohd Zaidi Zeki SMK Bandar Baru Utama 4, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia




Covid-19, Missing learning phenomenon, Learning loss, School closure, Preschool, Malaysia


Purpose –This study aims to explore the missing learning phenomenon due to school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic in preschool settings from teachers’ perspectives in Selangor, Malaysia. Related studies have shown that missing learning phenomena from different settings leads to delayed literacy development and raises the risk of dropping out among children. There is a lack of in-depth documentation on the missing learning phenomenon among preschoolers exploring the socioecology of preschool settings in a local context.

Methodology –This research employed a case study approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with six preschool teachers from Selangor, Malaysia, using an inductive approach for a holistic understanding of the missing learning phenomenon during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were analyzed using Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS), NVivo version 12 software, which mapped the findings to understand further the ecosystem behind the preschoolers’ absence of learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Findings – Three major themes were revealed from the data: the missing learning demographic, socioecological factors, and mitigation plans. Several sub-themes (the compensative learning solutions, the demographic of impacted people, the delayed progress, teachers’ readiness to facilitate online learning, engagement towards online learning, revised syllabus, personalized learning, and parental involvement) are classified under the respective major themes. Several main categories also emerged from the themes: lack of experiences and technology-pedagogical knowledge, unavailable online modules, low readiness to utilize online learning, unsupportive family climate, and accessibility. Learning intervention and online engagement with pupils during the pandemic are crucial in ensuring a successful continuous education.

Significance – There is also a need for comprehensive remote instructional modules that consider socioecological actors – parents
and home climate; in the future and the enhanced instructional technology competency among preschool teachers. 


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Author Biographies

Nurul Hijja Mazlan, Faculty of Communication and Media Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia

Dr. Nurul H. Mazlan is currently a senior lecturer at the Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Malaysia. She obtained her PhD in Education from University of Malaya.  Her main area of interest is technology in education, metaverse, media studies and instructional communication

Wardatul Hayat Adnan, Faculty of Communication and Media Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia

Dr. Wardatul Hayat Adnan is currently a senior lecturer at the Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Malaysia. She obtained her PhD in Communication and Media Studies from UiTM.  Her main area of interest is media warfare, public relations, crisis communication and metaverse.

Suffian Hadi Ayub, Faculty of Communication and Media Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia and Centre of Excellence for Social Innovation & Sustainability, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia

Dr Suffian Hadi Ayub is currently a senior lecturer at the Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Malaysia. He holds a PhD in Communication and Media Studies from UiTM. His main area of interest is the study of health communication, media studies, social media, advertising, and youth.

Mohd Zaidi Zeki, SMK Bandar Baru Utama 4, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia

Dr. Zaidi Zeki is currently a school teacher at SMK Bandar Baru Utama 4, Selangor, Malaysia. He holds a PhD in Education from University of Malaya. His main area of interest is the study of education, school development and pedagogy.


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Additional Files



How to Cite

Mazlan, N. H., Adnan, W. H., Ayub, S. H., & Zeki, M. Z. (2024). EXPLORING MISSING LEARNING PHENOMENON IN PRESCHOOL SETTINGS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC: TEACHERS’ PERSPECTIVES. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 21(1), 191–216. https://doi.org/10.32890/mjli2024.21.1.7