• Usry Abdullah College of Business and Management,Universiti Utara Malaysia,06010 Sintok, Kedah,Malaysia
  • Kadzrina Abdul Kadir College of Business and Management,Universiti Utara Malaysia,06010 Sintok, Kedah,Malaysia


The objective of this research is to examine the validity and reliability of the instrument for measuring the business strategy and organizational culture in pharmaceutical retailers in Peninsular Malaysia context. To date, the performance of the organizations had been studied by the researchers. However, there are still a limited number of studies done in the pharmaceutical industry, particularly among small retailers in Peninsular Malaysia. Thus, the study to examine of this area is needed and to examine the validity and reliability of the instrument is considered as the first step to facilitate further studies. The survey method was adopted for this study. A pilot test data from 30 respondents were collected and tested using factor analysis, construct validity, and reliability using SPSSV19. The results show that the instrument has a certain degree of reliability and validity and it is suitable for a study in Malaysia context. Hence, future studies can extend this finding and conduct a full scale study to establish empirical relationship between the study variables.


Abdul rashid, M. Z., Sambasivam, M., & Abdul Rahman, A. (2004). The influence of organizational culture on attitudes toward organizational change. The Leadership & Organization Development Journal., 25(2), 161–179.
Abdullah, A. M., Mohamad Arshad, F., & Abdul Latif, I. (2011). The Impacts Of Supermarkets And Hypermarkets From The Perspectives of Fresh Fruit And Vegetable (FFV) Wholesalers And Retailers. Journal of Agribusiness Marketing, 4, 21–37.
Abdullah, U., & Abdul Kadir, K. (2017). The Collaboration of Business Strategy and Distinctive Marketing Competencies For Achieving Competitive Advantae in a Small Business. International Confrence on Business, Accounting, Finance, and Economic (BAFE 2017), 43–49.
Akhbar Ahmadi, S. A., Salamzadeh, Y., Daraei, M., & Akhbari, J. (2012). Relationship between Organizational Culture ‎ and Strategy Implementation : Typologies ‎ and Dimensions. Global Business and Management Research:An International Journal., 4(3), 286–299.
Anwar, J., & Hasnu, S. (2016). Business strategy and firm performance: a multi-industry analysis. Journal of Strategy and Management., 9(3), 361–382.
Borraz, F., Dubra, J., Daniel, F., & Zipitria, L. (2014). Supermarket Entry and Survival of Small Stores. Review of Organiztaion, 44, 73-03.
Cheng, W.-H., Abdul Kadir, K., & Bohari, A. M. (2014). The Strategic Planning of SMES In Malaysia: A View of External Environmental Scanning. International Journal of Business and Society, 15(3), 437–446.
Chow, I. H. S., & Liu, S. S. (2009). The effect of aligning organizational culture and business strategy with HR systems on firm performance in Chinese enterprises. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(11), 2292–2310.
Chung Y. C., Hsu Y. W., Tsal S. C., Huang H. L., and T. C. H. (2012). The Correlation Between Business Strategy, Information Technology, Organizational Culture, Implementation of CRM, And Business performance In A High-Tech Industry. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering., 23(2), 1–15.
Commission, M. C. (2017). Market Review On Priority Sector Under Competition Act 2010 (Pharmaceutical Sector).
Crema, M., Verbano, C., & Venturini, K. (2014). linking Strategy With Open Innovation And performance In SMEs. Measuring Business Excellence, 18(2), 14–27.
Cristian-Liviu, V. (2013). organizational culture and strategy.How does it work? An empirical reserach. The Journal of The Faculty of Economic, 1(1), 1690–1697.
Gamage, D. T. (2006). Professional Development For Leaders and Managers of Self-Governing Schools. Springer,Netherlands.
Ghoshal, C. A. B. and S. (1987). Managing Across Borders: New Strategic Requirements. Sloan Management Review,Vol.28,No.2,Pp.7-17., 28(2), 7–17.
Gupta, B. (2011). A comparative study of organizational strategy and culture across industry. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 18(4), 510–528.
Hair, J. F., Black, B., Babin, B., AndersonRolph.E, & TathamRonald.L. (2006). Mutivariate Data Analysis (6th Editio). New jersey: Prantice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc.
Hashim, M. K. (2008). Strategic Management Text & Cases (Second Edi). Thomson.
Hashim, M. K. (2011). Developing Sustainable Small and Medium-Sized Enteprises through The Strategic Management Approach. Inaugural Proffessiorial Lecture Series, Universiti Utara Malaysia Press,Sintok.
Hassali, M. A., Shafie, A. A., Al-Haddad, M., Balamunurugan, T., Awaisu, A., & Siow Y, L. (2010). A Qualitative Study Exploring The Impact Of the Pharmaceutical Price war Among Community Pharmacies In The State Of Penang, Malaysia. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 4(5), 3161–3169. Retrieved from
Hassan, H., & Sabbir Rahman, M. (2012). Transformation of Hypermarket Retailing Industry in Malaysia. International Confrence on Innovation, Management and Technology Research (ICIMTR2012), 513–516.
Holst, P. H. (2014). The loss of Small Groceries And Hypermarket Growth In Malaysia. Eprints.Um.Edu.My. Retrieved from
Http:// (2015). Malaysian pharmaceutical industry overview. Retrieved from
John, P. (2011). Strategic Capabilities, Competitive Stratgy,and performance among retailers in Argentina,Peru and the United States. Management Decision, 49(1), 130–155.
Khalique, M., Hassan, M. I. A., Abdul Nasir Shaari, J., & Ageel, A. (2011). Challenges Faced By The Small And Medium Enterprises (SMEs) In Malaysia: An Intelectual Capital perspective. International Journal of Current Research, 3(6), 398–401.
Kho, P. B., Hassali, M. A., Lim, J. C., & Saleem, F. (2017). Challenges in the management of community pharmacies in Malaysia. Pharmacy Practice, 4(15), 1–10.
Kim, T., & Chang, J. (2019). Organizational Culture And Performance: A Macro-level Longitudinal Study. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 40(1), 65–84.
Lau, B. (2016). “Highly competitive market” causing Malaysian community pharmacists to barely stay afloat. Today.Mims.Com. Retrieved from
Marx, T. G. (2016). The Impact of Business Strategy on Organizational Structure. Journal of Management History, 22(3), 249–268.
Mazzarol, T., Clark, D. N., & Reboud, S. (2014). Strategy in Action: case Studies of strategy,planning and innovation in Australian SMEs. Small Enterprise Research, 21, 54–71.
Md Taib, M. Y., Mohd Udin, Z., & Abdul Ghani, A. (2015). The Impact of Green Management And Technology In Electrical and Electronic Maufacturing In Business Sustainability in Malaysia. Journal Teknologi, 77(5), 149–154.
Megicks, P. (2007). Level of strategy and performance in UK small retail business. Management Decision., 45(3), 484–502.
Monzavi, B., Mirabi, V., & Jamshidi, A. (2013). Evaluating the effect of organization culture on the successful execution of strategies: Case study of Payam-e-Noor university. Management Science Letters, 3(7), 2059–2070.
Naranjo-Valencia, J. C., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., & Sanz-Valle, R. (2011). Innovation or imitation? The role of organizational culture. Management Decision, 49(1), 55–72.
Prajogo, D. I., & McDermott, C. M. (2011). The relationship between multidimensional organizational culture and performance. International Journal of Operation & Production Management., 31(7), 712–735.
Rashid Abdul Md. zabid, S. M. and J. J. (2003). The Influence of corporate Culture and Organizational Commitment on Performance. Journal of Management Development, 22(8), 708–728.
Sekaran, U. (2000). Research methods For Business (Third Edit). John Willey & Sons.
Shahzad, F., Zahid, I., & Gulzar, M. (2013). Impact of Organizational Culture on Employees Job Performance : An Empirical Study of Software Houses in Pakistan. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(2).
Shein, E. H. (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership (3rd Editio). Jossey-Bass.
Slater, S. F., Olson, E. M., & Carol, F. (2011). Business Strategy, Marketing Organizational Culture and Performance. Springer Science + Business Media., 22, 227–242.
Tamer, J. (2005). Successful strategies for new venture development. Handbook of Business Strategy, 6(1), 115–121.
Tan, Y., Liyin, S., & Langston, C. (2012). Competition Environment, Strategy, and Performance in the Hong kong Construction Industry. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 138(3), 352–360.
Wan Yusoff, W. F., Jia, L. C., Azizan, A. Z., & Ramin, A. K. (2017). Business Strategy of Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs): A Case Study among Selected Chinese SMEs in Malaysia. The Social Sciences, 12(3), 400–405.
Wei, Y., Samiee, S., & Lee, R. P. (2013). The influence of organic organizational cultures, market responsiveness, and product strategy on firm performance in an emerging market. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 42(1), 49–70. (n.d.). Statistik PKS. Retrieved from
How to Cite
ABDULLAH, Usry; ABDUL KADIR, Kadzrina. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BUSINESS STRATEGY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE TO THE PERFORMANCE OF PHARMACEUTICAL RETAILERS IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: A PILOT STUDY. Journal of Technology and Operations Management, [S.l.], v. 15, n. 1, p. 29-39, july 2020. ISSN 2590-4175. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 30 oct. 2020.