Keywords: Child marriage, Safety, Kurdish-Syrian refugees, Qualitative inquiries
TURKISH-GREEK RELATIONS: A FRAGILE STABILITY BETWEEN NEIGHBORS ON THE TWO SHORES OF THE AEGEAN
1Aslı Ege, 2Tülay Yıldırım Mat & 3Mehmet Bardakçı
1Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Marmara University, Istanbul
2Department of Public Law, İzmir Katip Çelebi University, İzmir
*email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
This article considers the nature of Turkish-Greek relations, focusing on the question of how these should be characterized. This is an important topic not only because there is a lack of a clear definition of the situation between the two countries in the literature but also because providing one can assist in a long-term envisioning of a possible path that Turkish-Greek relations might take in the future. Employing a descriptive analysis, the article shows that a state of conflict rather than cooperation has determined the evolution of relations between Turkey and Greece. This sheds light on the intractable nature of the problems between the two countries, whether in Cyprus, the Aegean Sea, or the Eastern Mediterranean. Thus, the article concludes that Turkish-Greek relations are characterized by a historically grounded condition of fragile stability, with permanent tension and possible crisis prevailing, even if conflicts are frozen and war is not foreseen.
Keywords: Turkey-Greece, Aegean Sea, Cyprus, East Mediterranean.
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN KEDAH, MALAYA (1909–1940): A KEY TO ACHIEVING FOOD SECURITY, ECONOMIC GROWTH, AND RESPONSIBLE CONSUMPTION UNDER BRITISH
1Muhamad Shahrun Aiman Mohd Daud, 2Mohd Firdaus Abdullah, 3Arba’iyah Mohd Noor, 4Noraini Mohamed Hassan & 5Norazilawati Abd Wahab
2Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
3,4Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Universiti Malaya, Malaysia
5Faculty of General Studies and Advanced Education, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia.
The expansion of the British Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries significantly shaped livestock policies and agricultural practices in their colonies. Thus, understanding the British colonial experience in Kedah offers valuable perspectives on how responsible and sustainable livestock production can contribute to addressing the challenges of food security around the world. The current academic study employed a historical method and qualitative approach to investigate the impact of British colonial rule on livestock production in Kedah, Malaya, from 1909 to 1940. The study delved into the British efforts to enhance livestock production in Kedah and highlighted the pivotal role played by livestock production in achieving food security, promoting economic growth, and encouraging responsible consumption. Also, the current study revealed the challenges the British faced in animal husbandry activities during this period. The findings demonstrated that the British had successfully developed the livestock sector in Kedah, proven by the increased meat production, livestock numbers, and income. As a result, this historical study provides valuable insights for addressing contemporary global issues related to food security.
Keywords: Kedah, British, Malaya, Livestock, Food Production, Food Security
According to mainstream literature, Muslim countries often lag in terms of environmental sustainability despite following global environmental regulations. This raises the question of whether this applies to all aspects of environmental conservation. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation efforts in countries that are members of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and explore if a consistent growth trend in biodiversity conservation can be identified. The study employs semi-quantitative and policy-science methods, analysing data from Yale University’s Biodiversity and Habitat Protection Index from 2010 to 2020. The findings show a significant increase in biodiversity conservation performance over the ten-year study period. Interestingly, low-income countries outperformed their wealthier OIC counterparts in terms of biodiversity conservation despite having the lowest economic development status. This positive trend highlights the effectiveness of essential biodiversity policies and measures adopted in these Muslim countries. Furthermore, these results align with Stern’s approach, which argues that economic expansion can have diverse impacts on environmental quality, leading to the rejection of the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis in this study’s context. The study emphasises the need for further research into the nature of biodiversity policies among low-income nations. The policy ideas and solutions from these countries can provide valuable insights for combating biodiversity loss within OIC countries and globally, contributing to achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Additionally, it has the potential to enhance OIC countries’ capacity for biodiversity conservation and their role in supporting fellow Muslim nations in achieving the SDGs.
Keywords: OIC; Muslim countries, biodiversity, conservation, environmental sustainability, SDG.
This article considers the nature of Turkish-Greek relations, focusing on the question of how these should be characterized. This is an important topic not only because there is a lack of a clear definition of the situation between the two countries in the literature but also because one can assist in a long-term envisioning of a possible path that Turkish-Greek relations might take in the future. Employing a descriptive analysis, the article shows that a state of conflict rather than cooperation has determined the evolution of relations between Turkey and Greece. This sheds light on the intractable nature of the problems between the two countries, whether in Cyprus, the Aegean Sea, or the Eastern Mediterranean. Thus, the article concludes that Turkish-Greek relations are characterized by a historically grounded condition of fragile stability, with permanent tension and possible crisis prevailing, even if conflicts are frozen and war is not foreseen.
Keywords: Turkey-Greece, Aegean Sea, Cyprus, East Mediterranean.
This exploratory, diachronic study compares the politics of Islamisation, which have undergone different patterns of development in both Nigeria and Malaysia. Islamisation is defined as an ideological translation of Islamism into policies to “Islamise” the state and society by expanding the scope of the application of Islamic laws and principles. Islamisation in Malaysia has been implemented steadily and progressively since the 1980s, and involves a wide range of aspects of society, including the economy and inculcation of “Islamic values”. The Islamic penal code (“hudud”) enactments were legislated in two states, but held in abeyance due to their unconstitutionality. In contrast, Nigeria observed the sudden and erratic implementation of hudud in 12 northern states in 1999, along with other bureaucratic adjustments. Adopting an interpretative case study approach of the comparative method of Arend Lijphart, we explain the two contrastive case studies of the ideological translation of Islamism by analysing the manner in which various political opportunities and structural constraints in the respective cases have shaped the Islamisation processes. Data gathering was based on an extensive review of the related body of literature. Analysis was conducted using a social movement theoretical framework based on a structured, focused comparison. The dynamic conceptualisation of the state as a set of institutions, which is continually and dialectically reshaped by contentious processes, captures how the bureaucratisation and judicialisation of Islam have modified the nature of state structures and the structure of political opportunities, which in turn allows for additional channels of influence for Islamic activists.
The examination of the nexus between Financial Development (FD), Technological Advancement (TA), Human Capital (HC), and Private Consumption (PC) to Economic Growth (EG) has gained substantial attention in both empirical and theoretical academia since the early nineteenth century. Scholars affirm that FD, HC, PC, and TA are crucial factors in determining the optimal resource allocation and efficient utilization required to achieve sustainable EG. This study investigates the nexus of FD, HC, and PC with EG in Asian countries, with TA serving as the moderator. Data from 35 countries were collected annually over 15 years, spanning from 2005 to 2019. Using short panel data analysis due to the higher number of cross-sections (35) compared to time intervals (15), the findings confirm TA’s significant moderator effect in both short and long-run time scenarios. Additionally, a significant negative relationship with EG is observed for FD and PC, while TA and HC are identified as promoters of EG. The study underscores the importance of investing in TA while concurrently developing the quality of the labor force. Policymakers are encouraged to prioritize technology development and the introduction of innovative techniques. However, caution is advised in FD projects, necessitating strategies to reduce domestic private consumption.
EXPLORING MALAYSIA AND INDONESIA’S RESPONSES TO SINO-US STRATEGIC COMPETITION IN INDO-PACIFIC: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW (2013-2023)
1Amna Khalid & 2Bakri Mat
1&2School of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
2Asian Institute of International Affairs & Diplomacy, School of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia.
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Indo-Pacific region has emerged as a significant global focal point due to the increasing influence exerted by China and the United States. In light of the dynamic nature of the global geopolitical landscape, Malaysia and Indonesia, as two prominent Southeast Asian states, find themselves at the nexus of this competition. These two regional powers are strategically positioned in Indo-Pacific. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the crucial role of Indonesia and Malaysia in the context of the escalating Sino-US strategic competition in Indo-Pacific region. By focusing on research articles, books and reports, this work explored Indonesia and Malaysia’s policy and strategic outlook, methodological approaches and methods underpinning Indo-Pacific discourse. The methodology adopted for this review was systematic by following the seven stages suggested by Petticrew and Roberts (2008). This review’s findings indicated the diverse range of theories, methodologies, practical strategies, and approaches that scholars have employed in examining the roles of Indonesia and Malaysia in the Indo-Pacific region. Consequently, this paper broadens the scope for scholars by expounding upon Indonesia and Malaysia’s strategic outlook within the Indo-Pacific discourse, along with the various methodological and theoretical frameworks and conceptual models that may inform future research endeavours. This study is limited to journal articles, books, book chapters, and reports, excluding other sources such as conference papers and op-eds. Furthermore, the scope of accessed studies is limited to data available from 2013 to September 2023.
Keywords: Indo-Pacific, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sino-US competition, systematic literature review.
BRIDGING THE DIVIDE: ADDRESSING SOCIO-ECONOMIC INEQUALITY IN POST-APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (2000-2015)
Department of Political Science & Public Administration, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin, Nigeria,
Corresponding author: email@example.com
The practice of the apartheid system in South Africa has been widely condemned for perpetuating enduring socio-economic inequality and for its detrimental impacts on the lives of millions of citizens. While many studies have strongly affirmed this assertion, socio-economic inequality continues to arguably engender a long-lasting struggle among the black and colored communities in post-apartheid South Africa. This places a burden on the country’s successive governments to implement long-term policies that can rectify the plight of the people. Consequently, the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000 becomes an important reference tool for the African National Congress (ANC)-dominated government, which has initiated and implemented policies to combat inequality in the post-apartheid era. This study examines the roles and measures taken by the ANC government to address racially discriminated economic and social inequality within the framework of the MDGs. Using qualitative research methods, the study explores the background framework of the MDGs and analyzes socio-economic measures implemented by successive ANC governments between 2000 and 2015, focusing on areas such as education, poverty eradication, and healthcare. Primary and secondary sources are utilized to provide insights and support the analysis. The findings reveal that the ANC-dominated government effectively incorporated the frameworks of the MDGs into its formulation and execution of policy measures to eradicate social inequality in South Africa. The study, therefore, concludes that the effective implementation of these measures has yielded considerable progress, effectively addressing multifaceted issues such as poverty, healthcare, education, and unemployment. This conclusion aligns with the official South African MDGs’ report, which unequivocally highlights the several achievements of MDG targets through policy implementation from 2000 to 2015.
Keywords: Apartheid system, education, governance, social inequality, Millennium Development Goals, South Africa.