The Relationship Between Job Burnout and Job Satisfaction: Health Care Industry Perspectives

  • Anisa Muhammad Nur Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Herman Shah Anuar Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

Abstract

The healthcare industry is becoming one of the most growing concerns among people in Malaysia. This industry is expected to provide efficient and effective services to the community. This study is aimed to examine the relationship between the dimension job burnout, which includes emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization with job satisfaction among healthcare providers in the healthcare industry at the northern part of Malaysia. A quantitative methodology was applied in this study where 200 questionnaires had been distributed. Only 171 questionnaires were collected and returned back. Out of that number, only 156 questionnaires were fit to be analysed. It was found that all of the burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) have a significant relationship to job satisfaction. Multiple Regression analyses have found that 2 of the independent variables had a negative relationship with job satisfaction (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). Personal accomplishment is the most significant and had a strong relationship with job satisfaction. It is recommended for future research to conduct qualitative research to find diversity in the result, emphasising on other professions, including a firefighter, police officer, custom immigration officer, or any other enforcement profession which seems to have an issue with job burnout. It is challenging to conduct this research due to the geographical location since the location for this study is in the northern part of Malaysia. It involves many hospitals, clinics as well as patient-oriented personnel. On the other hand, future research may include a bigger number of medical and healthcare personnel all over Malaysia to get a better generalisation. A wider scope of the population will provide better findings that cover all spectrum of the healthcare provider.

References

Akpinar, A.T., Tas, Y., & Okur, M.E. (2013). The Effect of Job Satisfaction and Emotional Exhaustion on Affective Commitment of Emergency Services Employees, British Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences, 7 (2), 169-177.
Aziri, B. (2011). Job Satisfaction: A Literature Review, Management Research and Practice, 3(4), 77-86.
BERNAMA. (2019, July 15). Kesesakan di Jabatan Kecemasan hospital kerana kunjungan pesakit melebihi 'level of care'. Kuala LUmpur, Malaysia: Berita Harian Online.
Baldwin, K. D., Barmore, C., Suprina, J. S., & Weaver, A. (2011). Burnout syndrome in licensed
mental health counselors and registered mental health counselor interns: A pilot study. 2011
American Counseling Association Conference, March 26, New Orleans, LA. Retrieved from
http://www.counseling.org/Resources
Bazmi, E., Alipour, A., Yasamy, M.T., Kheradmand, A., Salehpour, S., Khodakarim, S., & Soori, H. (2019). Job Burnout and Related Factors among Health Sector Employees, Iran Journal of Psychiatry, 14(4), 309–316, retrieved on Jan 2020 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7007511/17.
Burke, R. J., & Richardsen, A. M. (1996). Stress, burnout, and health. Stress, Medicine, and Health, 101-1 Chan, C. M., Chang, S. M., Chong, Y. S., & Tang, C. U. (2015). The influence of job stress, burnout and job satisfaction among primary school teachers in Ipoh (Doctoral dissertation, UTAR).
Chan, S. H., Wan, Y. K. P., & Kuok, O. M. (2015). Relationships9-177 among burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover of casino employees in Macau. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 24(4), 345-374.
Cordes, C. , & Dougherty, T.W. (1993). A review and an integration of research on job burnout. Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 621-656.
Freudenberger, H.J. (1974). Staff Burn‐Out, Journal of Social Issues, 30(1),159-165, retrieved on January 24, 2020 from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1974.tb00706.x
Johnson, R.P. (1991). Easing the burden of stress. A stress management program can help eldercare professionals cope, Health Program, 72(1), 56-59, retrieved on January 20, 2020 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10108426
Jing, N.Y. (2019). The 5 Most Stressful Professions in Malaysia 2019, retrieved April 20, 2020 from https://www.jobstore.com/careers-blog/2019/06/21/the-5-most-stressful-professions- in-malaysia-2019/
Farhan. (2015, March 7). S "pore nurse: We are severely overworked & often don "t even have time for lunch. Singapore News Today. Retrieved October 10, 2019, from http://www.allsingaporestuff.com/article/spore-nurse-we-are-severelyoverworked-often-dont-even-have- time-lunch.
George, J.M., & Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational behavior, Fifth Edition, Pearson/Prentice Hall, New Yersey, 78.
Hur, W. M., IL Park, S., & Moon, T. W. (2014). The moderating roles of organizational justice on the relationship between emotional exhaustion and organizational loyalty in airline services. Journal of Services Marketing, 28(3), 195-206.
Hudek-Knežević, J., Krapić, N., & Rajter, L. (2005). The relation between emotional control, perceived stress at work and professional burnout in hospital nurses. Psihologijske teme, 14(2.), 41-54.
Janssen, P. P., Schaufelioe, W. B., & Houkes, I. (1999). Work-related and individual determinants of the three burnout dimensions. Work & Stress, 13(1), 74-86.
Judge, T. A., & Church, A. H. (2000). Job satisfaction: Research and practice. In C. L. Cooper &: E. A Locke (Eds.), Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Linking theory with practice, 166-198, Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Kuzgun, Y., & Bacanli, F. (2006). Measurement tools and programme series in psychological counselling and guidance. Ankara: Nobel Press.
Kuzgun, Y. (1999). Vocational counselling: Theory and application. Ankara: Nobel Publishers.
Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining Sample Size For Research Activities, Educational And Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610.
Kirk, A. (2015). Nurses at breaking point as number off work with stress soars. Available from: The Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/jan/17/nurses-nhs-stress- leavestaff-breaking-point [Last Retrieved Octobter 17, 2019].
Lambert, E. G., Qureshi, H., Frank, J., Klahm, C., & Smith, B. (2018). Job stress, job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment and their associations with job burnout among Indian police officers: a research note. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 33(2), 85-99.
Leiter, M. P., & Schaufeli, W. B. (1996). Consistency of the burnout construct across occupations. Anxiety, stress, and coping, 9(3), 229-243.
Leiter, M. P., Clark, D., & Durup, J. (1994). Distinct models of burnout and commitment among men and women in the military. The Journal of applied behavioral science, 30(1), 63-82.
Locke, E. A. (1969). What is job satisfaction? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4, 309-336.
Loh, H. S., Gan, L. Y., Lim, Z. W., Loh, W. S., & Yong, S. Y. (2016). The relationship between Stress and Job Satisfaction of Nurses in private hospitals of Georgetown, Penang (Doctoral dissertation, UTAR).
Malaysia Investment Development Authority (MIDA). (2019, 10 10). Retrieved from :https://www.mida.gov.my/home/healthcare-sector/posts/
Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory manual (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Maslach, C. (2003). The Burnout: The Cost of Caring. Cambridge, MA: Malor Boo
Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–422.
Maslach, C., & Leiter, M.P. (2016). Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry, World Psychiatry, 15(2), 103-111.
Morse, G., Salyers, M. P ., Rollin's, A. L., Monroe DeVita, M., & Pfahler, C. (2012). Burnout in mental health services: a review of the problem and its remediation. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 39 (2), 341-352. doi:10.1007/s10488-011-0352-1
Mäkikangas, A., & Kinnunen, U. (2016). The person-oriented approach to burnout: A systematic review, Burnout Research, 3 (1), 11-23, retrieved on January 23, 2020 from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213058615300127
Meyer, J.P., Allen, N.J. ,& Smith, C.A. (1993). Commitment to organisations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538-551.
Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2016). Leader emotional intelligence and subordinate job satisfaction: A meta-analysis of main, mediator, and moderator effects. Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 13-24.
Nagar, K. (2012). Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction Among Teachers During Times of Burnout, VIKALPA, 37(2), 43-60.
Piko, B. F. (2006). Burnout, role conflict, job satisfaction and psychosocial health among Hungarian health care staff: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43(3), 311-318.
Pillay, R. (2009), Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa. A comparative analysis of the public and private sectors. Human Resources for Health, 7(15), 1-10.
Portoghese,I., Rosa, M.G. , Gabriele, C.C., & Campagna, F.M. (2014). Burnout and Workload Among Health Care Workers: The Moderating Role of Job Control, Safety and Health at Work, 5 (3), 152-157, retrieved on January 20, 2020 from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2014.05.004
Salanova, M., Llorens, S., García-Renedo, M., Burriel, R., BresÓ, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2005). Towards a four-dimensional model of burnout: A multigroup factor-analytic study including depersonalization and cynicism. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65(5), 807- 819.
Schaufeli, W.B., Leiter, M.P., Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E. (1996). The MBI-General Survey, from C. Maslach, S.E. Jackson, M.P. Leiter (Eds.), Maslach Burnout Inventory manual (3rd ed.), Consulting Psychologists Press.
Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2012). Research methods for business: A skill building approach (6th ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Shah, A. (2018, August 26). [EXCLUSIVE] Over 2,000 suicide cases in the past four years (NSTTV). Retrieved October 25, 2019, from New Straits Times:
https://www.nst.com.my/news/exclusive/2018/08/404930/exclusive-over-2000-suicide- cases-past-four-years-nsttv
Tourigny, L. , Baba, V.V., & Wang, X. (2010). Burnout and depression among nurses in Japan and China: the moderating effects of job satisfaction and absence, The International Journal of Human Resource Management , 21 (10). 2741-2761, https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2010.528656
Tarcan, G. Y., Tarcan, M., & Top, M. (2017). An analysis of relationship between burnout and job satisfaction among emergency health professionals. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 28(11-12), 1339-1356.
The, Lancet. (2017). Suicide among healthcare workers: time to act. Lancet (London, England), 389(10064), 2.
The Star Online. (2018, December 4). Malaysia's healthcare market to reach RM217.9b by 2027, says Fitch Research. Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia: The Star.
Van Mol, M. M., Kompanje, E. J., Benoit, D. D., Bakker, J., & Nijkamp, M. D. (2015). The prevalence of compassion fatigue and burnout among healthcare professionals in intensive care units: a systematic review. PloS one, 10(8), e0136955.
Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1998). Emotional exhaustion as a predictor of job performance and voluntary turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(3), 486.
WHO (2017). Protecting workers' health, World Health Organisation, retrieved on January 2, 2020 from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/protecting-workers'-health
WHO (2019). Burnout an "occupational phenomenon": International Classification of Diseases, Mental health, World Health Organisation, retrieved on January 2, 2020,
https://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/burn-out/en/
Ullström, S., Sachs, M. A., Hansson, J., Øvretveit, J., & Brommels, M. (2014). Suffering in silence: a qualitative study of second victims of adverse events. BMJ Qual Saf, 23(4), 325-331.
Wardle, E.A., & Mayorga, M.G. (2016). Burnout Among The Counselling Profession: A Survey Of Future Professional Counsellors, I-Manager's Journal o Educational Psychology, 10 (1), 9-16.
Published
2020-06-30
How to Cite
MUHAMMAD NUR, Anisa; ANUAR, Herman Shah. The Relationship Between Job Burnout and Job Satisfaction: Health Care Industry Perspectives. Global Business Management Review, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 1, p. 46-71, june 2020. ISSN 2600-8416. Available at: <http://e-journal.uum.edu.my/index.php/gbmr/article/view/10732>. Date accessed: 13 aug. 2020.
Section
Articles