An Improved Pheromone-Based Kohonen Self- Organising Map in Clustering and Visualising Balanced and Imbalanced Datasets


  • Azlin Ahmad Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia
  • Rubiyah Yusof Centre of Artificial Intelligence and Robotic (Cairo), Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Nor Saradatul Akmar Zulkifli Faculty of Computer System & Software Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
  • Mohd Najib Ismail School of Computing Asia Pacific University Technology Park Malaysia, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



Clustering, imbalanced data, Kohonen self-organizing map, optimization, pheromone


The data distribution issue remains an unsolved clustering problem in data mining, especially in dealing with imbalanced datasets. The
Kohonen Self-Organising Map (KSOM) is one of the well-known clustering algorithms that can solve various problems without a pre-
defined number of clusters. However, similar to other clustering algorithms, this algorithm requires sufficient data for its unsupervised
learning process. The inadequate amount of class label data in a dataset significantly affects the clustering learning process, leading
to inefficient and unreliable results. Numerous research have been conducted by hybridising and optimising the KSOM algorithm
with various optimisation techniques. Unfortunately, the problems are still unsolved, especially separation boundary and overlapping
clusters. Therefore, this research proposed an improved pheromonebased PKSOM algorithm known as iPKSOM to solve the mentioned
problem. Six different datasets, i.e. Iris, Seed, Glass, Titanic, WDBC, and Tropical Wood datasets were chosen to investigate the effectiveness of the iPKSOM algorithm. All datasets were observed and compared with the original KSOM results. This modification
significantly impacted the clustering process by improving and refining the scatteredness of clustering data and reducing overlapping
clusters. Therefore, this proposed algorithm can be implemented in clustering other complex datasets, such as high dimensional and
streaming data. 


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How to Cite

Ahmad, A., Yusof, R., Akmar Zulkifli, N. S., & Ismail, M. N. (2021). An Improved Pheromone-Based Kohonen Self- Organising Map in Clustering and Visualising Balanced and Imbalanced Datasets. Journal of Information and Communication Technology, 20(4), 651–676.