THE FACTORS WHY PEOPLE EXERT LESS: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKPLACE ENVY AND SOCIAL LOAFING MODERATED BY SELF-ESTEEM
The aim of this paper is to link envy at the workplace to social loafing and to examine the role of self-esteem in moderating this relationship. Data was collected via a survey questionnaire from 393 employees working in public and private organizations in Malaysia. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the hypotheses. The results show that the higher the degree of workplace envy encountered, the higher the inclination for members to exert less effort while working in a team (social loafing), and this relationship is moderated by self-esteem. In addition, it is found that the relationship is better for low self-esteem workers relative to those high in self-esteem. In terms of workplace envy and avoidance of social loafing, the research provides important implications. Organizations should etablish a supportive workplace that encourages employees to be more involved and practice openness and give continued support. In a team culture especially, managers must play an active role by paying attention and being more sensitive towards circumstances that induce feelings of envy at work. By implementing a proper system and control, tendency towards workplace envy and social loafing can be mimimized.