Adaptation, Validation and Translation of the Women Personal Empowerment Scale
Pakistan ranks third in the list of the most hazardous countries for woman's survival. In this study, by using the quantitative approach, the scale adaptation process was conducted in three phases as integration of instruments, generation of items, and generalization of expert reviews. Back-to-Back translation on 40 women was done to determine the understanding of the Urdu language of personal empowerment scale. Sequentially, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed on the data collected from 360 respondents for the Construct Validity Method (CVM) on personal empowerment Scale-Urdu Version. The results confirmed the validity of the scale. Cross-language validity was also determined. The empirical findings also indicated that women's personal empowerment plays a significant role in improving their quality of life. Theorists and practitioners need to pay more attention to the generalization of the personal empower scale.
Bhattacharya, S. (2014). Status of Women in Pakistan. Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, 51(1).
Bollen, K. A. & Lennox, R. (1991) Conventional Wisdom on Measurement: A Structural Equation Perspective. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 305-314.
Brislin, R. W. (1976). Translation, application, and research. Halsted Press
Cheung, Y. W., Mok, B. H., & Cheung, T. S. (2005). Personal empowerment and life satisfaction among self-help group members in Hong Kong. Small group research, 36(3), 354-377.
Cohen, R, Swerdlik, M (2009) Psychological Testing and Assessment: An Introduction to Tests and Measurement (7th edn). McGraw-Hill.
Coltman, T., Devinney, T. M., Midgley, D. F., & Venaik, S. (2008). Formative versus reflective measurement models: Two applications of formative measurement. Journal of Business Research, 61(12), 1250-1262.
Department for International Development (DFID), (2014). Retrieved on 22nd November, 2016. Retrieved from World Wide Web: https://www.gov.uk/government/case- studies/helping-girls-get-an education-in-Pakistan.
Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2006). Formative versus reflective indicators in organizational measure development: A comparison and empirical illustration. British Journal of Management, 17(4), 263-282.
Diamantopoulos, A., & Winklhofer, H. M. (2001). Index construction with formative indicators: An alternative to scale development. Journal of marketing research, 38(2), 269-277.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) (2002). Sustainable social development in the period of rapid globalization: challenges, opportunities, and policy options. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, UN, New York.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 39-50.
Gefen, D., Straub, D., & Boudreau, M. C. (2000). Structural equation modeling and regression: Guidelines for research practice. Communications of the association for information systems, 4(1), 7.
Golla, A, A. Malhotra, P. Nanda and R. Mehra (2011) Understanding and measuring women's economic empowerment. Definition, framework, indicators Washington DC: International Centre for Research on Women.
Habib, N. (1996). Invisible farmers in Pakistan: a study on the role of women in agriculture and the impact of pesticides on them. Khoj, Research and Publication Centre.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2010). SEM: An introduction. Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective, 629-686.
Hambleton, R. (1994). Translation: An art and science. In W. R. Brislin (Ed.), Translation, application, and research (pp. 215-240). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W. & Calantone, R. J. (2014). Common beliefs and reality about PLS: Comments on Rönkkö and Evermann (2013). Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 182-209.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., Sinkovics, R.R., (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in interna- tional marketing, Advances in International Marketing 20, 277- 320.
Hulland, J. (1995) Use of Partial Least Squares (PLS) in Strategic Management Research. Working Paper Series No.95-23, Western Business School, the University of Western Ontario, July 1995.
Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies. Strategic management journal, 195-204.
Isran, S., & Isran, M. A. (2012). Patriarchy and women in Pakistan: a critical analysis. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(6), 835-859.
Jafree, S. R., & Ahmad, K. (2013). Women Microfinance Users and Their Association with Improvement in Quality of Life: Evidence from Pakistan. Asian Women, 29(4), 73-105.
Jahan, S. (2015). Human Development Report 2015: Work for Human Development. United Nations Development Program. Retrieved from http;//hdr.undp.org on Tuesday, 3rd December, 2016.
Jarvis, C. B., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2003). A critical review of construct indicators and measurement model misspecification in marketing and consumer research. Journal of consumer research, 30(2), 199-218.
Khan, M. A., & Rahaman, M. A. (2007). Impact of microfinance on living standards, empowerment and poverty alleviation of poor people: a case study on microfinance in the Chittagong District of Bangladesh. Master's Thesis, Umea University, Sweden.
Khan, T. M. (2010). Socio-Cultural Determinants of Women's Empowerment in Punjab, Pakistan. A Thesis Submitted to Faculty of Agricultural Economics & Rural Sociology University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Science Vol. 62 No.1.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Convergence of structural equation modeling and multilevel modeling (pp. 562-589). na.
Lyons, M., Smots, C., & Stephens, A. (2001). Participation, empowerment and sustainability: (How) do the links work? Urban Studies, 38, 1233-1251.
MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Jarvis, C. B. (2005). The problem of measurement model misspecification in behavioral and organizational research and some recommended solutions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 710.
Mason, K. O., & Smith, H. L. (2003). Women's empowerment and social context: Results from five Asian countries. Gender and Development Group, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Moore, M. (2001). Empowerment at last? Journal of International Development, 13, 322- 329.
Mostofa, G., I.Tareque, M. Haque, and T.M. Islam. 2008. Mathematical modeling of women empowerment in Bangladesh. Research Journal of Applied Sciences 3 (6): 416-420.
Moyle, T. L., Dollard, M., & Biswas, S. N. (2006). Personal and Economic Empowerment in Rural Indian Women a Self-Help Group Approach. International Journal of Rural Management, 2(2), 245-266.
Mumtaz, Z., & Salway, S. (2005). 'I never go anywhere': extricating the links between women's mobility and uptake of reproductive health services in Pakistan. Social science & medicine, 60(8), 1751-1765.
Nabahat, S. (2014). Impact of Micro Finance on Women Empowerment: A Case Study of Selected districts of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Peshawar, Peshawar).
Neesa. T. (2011). The Impact of Microfinance Institutions on Women Empowerment in Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
Niethammer, C., Saeed, T., Mohamed, S. S., & Charafi, Y. (2007). Women entrepreneurs and access to finance in Pakistan. Women's Policy Journal of Harvard, 4, 1–12, Summer 2007.
Pakistan Statistical Bureau, (2016). Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Survey (2014-2015), Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. Retrieved on 21st October 2017, Retrieved http://www.pbs.gov.pk/.
Pakistan Statistical Bureau, (2019). Population Census Report 2017. Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. Retrieved on 7th October 2019, Retrieved from http://www.pbs.gov.pk/.
Petter, S., Straub, D., & Rai, A. (2007). Specifying formative constructs in information systems research. MIS quarterly, 623-656.
Pitt, M. M., Khandker, S. R., & Cartwright, J. (2006). Empowering women with micro finance: Evidence from Bangladesh. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 54(4), 791-831.
Rehman, M. H., and Naoroze, K. (2007). Women empowerment through participation in aquaculture: Experience of a large-scale technology demonstration project in Bangladesh, Journal of Social Science, volume,2, pp. 164-171.
Rönkkö, M., & Evermann, J. (2013). A critical examination of common beliefs about partial least squares path modeling. Organizational Research Methods, 16(3), 425-448.
Sohail, M. (2014). Women Empowerment and Economic Development-An Exploratory Study in Pakistan. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 5(4), 210.
Subramaniam, G., Tan, P. L., Maniam, B., & Ali, E. (2013). Workplace Flexibility, Empowerment and Quality of Life. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 105, 885-893.
Turner, S. G., & Maschi, T. M. (2015). Feminist and empowerment theory and social work practice. Journal of Social Work Practice, 29(2), 151-162.
UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund). 2014. "Renewing Commitments to the Health and Rights of Women and Young People": Retrieved on 22nd November, 2016. Retrieved from http://www.unfpa.org/annual-report-2014.
United Nations Development Program. (UNDP) and BRIDGE (2007) e-discussion summary: Measuring Gender Equality, April 2007, organized and coordinated by UNDP and BRIDGE. Retrieved on 7th August 2017, Retrieved from http://www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/Indicators_ediscussion_consolidated_reply. pdf.
UNDP, U. (2015). Human development report 2015: Work for human development. United Nations Development Programme.
Vaessen, J., Rivas, A., Duvendack, M., Palmer-Jones, R., Leeuw, F. L., van Gils, G., & Waddington, H. (2014). The effect of microcredit on women's control over household spending in developing countries: a systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 10(8).
Vondrová, A., & Valach, M. (2014). Decision Making and Quality of Life. In Human Capital without Borders: Knowledge and Learning for Quality of Life; Proceedings of the Management, Knowledge and Learning International Conference 2014 (pp. 165-174).
World Economic Forum. The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-09. World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. (2009)
Global Business Management Review (GBMR) has taken all reasonable measures to ensure that material contained in this website is the original work of the author(s). However, the Journal gives no warranty and accepts no responsibility for the accuracy or the completeness of the material; no reliance should be made by any user on the material. The user should check with the authors for confirmation.
Articles published in the Global Business Management Review (GBMR) do not represent the views held by the editors and members of the editorial board. Authors are responsible for all aspects of their articles except the editorial screen design.
Submission of an article is done with the understanding that the article has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication somewhere else; that if and when the article is accepted for publication, the author's consent to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.