• Mohamad Mahathir Shamsulbahri Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Norehan Zulkiply Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia




directed activity related to texts, qualitative analysis, chemistry, students' achievement, salt topic, gender


Purpose – The present study examined the effect of Directed Activity Related to Texts (DARTs) and gender on student achievement in qualitative analysis in chemistry. It focused on the qualitative analysis component of the Chemistry course, which for students has been perceived as being the most difficult aspect of their mastery of the subject.

Methodology – The study involved 120 secondary four science stream students from two local fully residential schools. In a quasi-experiment, participants studied the topic of qualitative analysis of salt, using one of the following three instructional methods: Experiment, DARTs, and Combination of Experiment and DARTs. The participants in the three groups were then tested on their knowledge about salt.

Findings – Results of a two-way independent ANOVA performed on the experiment data revealed a significant main effect corresponding to the type of instructional method that the three groups were treated to — the mean scores for the Combined method group was the highest, followed by the DARTs group, and then the Experiment group. Further analysis using an independent t-test showed that the difference in mean scores between the DARTs and Experiment groups was significant. It is argued that participants’ learning in the Combined method group might have been enhanced by the DARTs instructional method. The effect of gender and the interaction effect between the variables were not significant.

Significance – The findings of the study has provided clear experimental evidence regarding the role of the DARTs instructional method in enhancing qualitative analysis learning in chemistry. These findings also provided important insights to educators on DARTs as an alternative method of teaching and learning the topic on qualitative analysis in chemistry.


Metrics Loading ...


Adesoji, F. A., Omilani, N. A., & Nyinebi, O. M. (2015). The effect of homogenous and heterogeneous gender pair cooperative learning strategies on students’ achievement in chemistry. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 11 (3), 1-12. doi: 10.9734/BJESBS/2015/19537

Afuwape, M. O. (2011). Students' self-concept and their achievement in basic science. African Research Review, 5(4), 191-200. doi: 10.4314/afrrev.v5i4.69276

Ajayi, V. O., & Ogbeba, J. (2017). Effect of gender on senior secondary chemistry students’ achievement in stoichiometry using hands-on activities. American Journal of Educational Research, 5(8), 839-842.

Amunga, J. K., Amadalo, M. M., & Musera, G. (2011). Disparities in chemistry and biology achievement in secondary schools: Implications for vision 2030. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(18), 226-236.

Andrade, J. (2001). The working memory model: Consensus, controversy, and future directions. In J.

Andrade (Ed.), Working Memory in Perspective. East Sussex, U.K: Psychology Press.

Aniodoh, H. C. O., & Egbo, J. J. (2013). Effect of gender on students’ achievement in chemistry using inquiry role instructional model. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 3(6), 17. doi: 10.5901/jesr.2013.v3n6p17

Bamiro, A. O. (2015). Effects of guided discovery and think-pair-share strategies on secondary school students’ achievement in chemistry. SAGE Open, 5(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1177/2158244014564754

Banerjee, A. C., & Vidyapati, T. J. (1997). Effect of lecture and cooperative learning strategies on achievement in chemistry in undergraduate classes. International Journal of Science Education, 19(8), 903-910. doi: 10.1080/0950069970190804

Berger, S.G. (2015). Investigating Student Perceptions of the Chemistry Laboratory and Their Approaches to Learning in the Laboratory (Unpublished PhD Thesis). University of California, Berkeley.

BouJaoude, S., & Attieh, M. (2008). The Effect of Using Concept Maps as Study Tools on Achievement in Chemistry. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 4(3), 233-246. doi: 10.12973/ejmste/75345

Broman, K., Ekborg, M., & Johnels, D. (2011). Chemistry in crisis? Perspectives on teaching and learning chemistry in Swedish upper secondary schools. Nordic Studies in Science Education, 7(1), 45-53. doi:https://doi.org/10.5617/nordina.245

Cavinato A.G. (2017). Challenges and successes in implementing active learning laboratory experiments for an undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 409(6), 1465-1470. doi: 10.1007/s00216-016-0092-x

Chu, C. K., & Hong, K. Y. (2010, August). Misconceptions in the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools in Singapore & Malaysia. Paper presented at Innovative Thoughts, Invigorating Teaching : Proceedings of the Sunway Academic Conference (The 1st Pre-University Conference), Selangor, Malaysia.

Darby-White, T., Wicker, S., & Diack, M. (2019). Evaluating the effectiveness of virtual chemistry laboratory (VCL) in enhancing conceptual understanding: Using VCL as pre-laboratory assignment. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 38(1), 31-48.

Gabriel, I. A., Osuafor, A. M., Cornelius, N. A., Obinna, P. P., & Francis, E. (2018). Improving Students’ Achievement in Chemistry through Cooperative Learning and Individualized Instruction. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 26(2), 1-11. doi: 10.9734/JESBS/2018/42873

Gebrehiwot, H. (2017). Evaluation and intervention of students’ laboratory performance in chemistry graduating classes; Wachemo University, Ethiopia. International Journal of Scientific Reports, 3(7), 203-213. doi:10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20173092

Goh, N. K., Toh, K. A., & Chia, L. S. (1987). The effect of modified laboratory instruction on students' achievement in chemistry practicals. Singapore: Institute of Education.

Grady, M. K. J. (2010). Development of scientific literacy by incorporating directed activities related to text in a college-level conceptual chemistry course. Sacramento: California State University.

Groome, D. (1999). An introduction to cognitive psychology: Processes and disorders. UK: Psychology Press.

Gunstone, R. F. (1991). Reconstructing theory from practical experience. In B. Woolnough (Ed.), Practical Science (pp. 67–77). Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.

Hameed, S. (2017). Effect of Intervention of Directed Activities Related to Text (DARTs) on Undergraduates’ Writing Skill. Pakistan Journal of Educational Research and Evaluation, 2(1), 77-103.

Haryanti, E.H.W., Ulfah, M., & Rahayu, P. (2013). The study of invertebrate zoology based DARTs through lesson study as an effort in building the biology studens’ critical thinking. BIOMA Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi, 2, 101-113. doi: 10.26877/bioma.v2i1,%20April.406

Henderson, J., & Wellington, J. (1998). Lowering the language barrier in learning and teaching science. School Science Review, 79(288), 35-46.

Hernández, L. M. B., & Solano, T. H. (2017). Teaching reading comprehension strategies through a genre oriented reading course (Unpublished Master's Thesis). Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla.

Hikmah, N., Yamtinah, S., & Indriyanti, N. Y. (2018). Chemistry teachers’ understanding of science process skills in relation of science process skills assessment in chemistry learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1022, 1-7. doi :10.1088/1742-6596/1022/1/012038

Hodges, G. W., Wang, L., Lee, J., Cohen, A., & Jang, Y. (2018). An exploratory study of blending the virtual world and the laboratory experience in secondary chemistry classrooms. Computers & Education, 122, 179-193. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.003

Hodson, D. (1993). Re-thinking old ways: Towards a more critical approach to practical work in school science. Studies in Science Education, 22, 85–142. doi: 10.1080/03057269308560022

Hofstein, A. (2004). The laboratory in chemistry education: Thirty years of experience with developments, implementation, and research. Chemistry education research and practice, 5(3), 247-264. doi: 10.1039/B4RP90027H

Ibrahim, N.H., Surif, J., Hui, K.P., & Yaakub, S. (2013). “Typical” teaching method applied in chemistry experiment. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 4946–4954. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1054

Ichwan, Z.,Susilawati, S.M.E., & Bintari, S.H. (2015). The Development of Workbook DARTs-Based to Increase Students’ Critical Thinking Skill on The Contaminated Environment. In Sutikno, A. Widiyatmoko, Masturi & A. Purwinako (Eds.), International Conference on Mathematics, Science and Education 2015 (pp. 40-44). Semarang, Indonesia: Semarang State University.

Johnstone, A. H. (1999). The nature of Chemistry. Education in Chemistry, 36 (2), 45-48.

Kim, T. L. S., & Wai, M. C. (2007). Language development strategies for the teaching of science in English. Learning Science and Mathematics Journal, 2, 47-60.

Lay, A.-N., & Osman, K. (2018). Developing 21st century chemistry learning through designing digital games. Journal of Education in Science, Environment and Health (JESEH), 4(1), 81-92. doi: :10.21891/jeseh.387499

Lay, A.-N., & Osman, K. (2015). Framework for 21st century chemistry instruction: A guide to teaching and learning of Qualitative Analysis. Technics Technologies Education Management, 10 (2), 216–230.

Lee, T. T., & Osman, K. (2014). Development of Interactive Multimedia Module with Pedagogical Agent (IMMPA) in the learning of electrochemistry: Needs assessment. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 7(18), 3725–3732. doi: 10.19026/rjaset.7.727

Lowe, P. A., Mayfield, J. W., & Reynolds, C. R. (2002). Gender differences in memory test performance among children and adolescents. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18(8), 865-878. doi: 10.1093/arclin/18.8.865

Merrill, E. C., Yang, Y., Roskos, B., & Steele, S. (2016). Sex Differences in Using Spatial and Verbal Abilities Influence Route Learning Performance in a Virtual Environment: A Comparison of 6- to 12-Year Old Boys and Girls. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-17. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00258

Nakhleh, M. B., & Krajcik, J. S. (1994). Influence of levels of information as presented by different technologies on students' understanding of acid, base, and pH concepts. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31(10), 1077-1096. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660311004

Ni’mah, H. (2016). The Effectiveness of Directed Activities Related to Text (Darts) on Students Reading Comprehension in Narrative Text of The Eight Grade at MTs Baitul Arqom Balung in The 2015/2016 Academic Year (Doctoral dissertation).Universitas Muhammadiyah Jember, Indonesia.

Obrentz, S. (2012). Predictors of science success: The impact of motivation and learning strategies on college chemistry performance (Unpublished dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

Okereke, C., & Ugwuegbulam, C. N. (2014). Effects of Competitive Learning Strategy on Secondary School Students Learning Outcomes: Implications for Counselling. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 3 (2), 137-143.

Olatoye, R. A., & Adekoya, Y. M. (2010). Effect of project-based, demonstration and lecture teaching strategies on senior secondary students’ achievement in an a0D
Wachanga, S. W., & Mwangi, J. G. (2004). Effects of the Cooperative Class Experiment Teaching Method on Secondary School Students' Chemistry Achievement in Kenya's Nakuru District. International Education Journal, 5(1), 26-36.

Walqui, A. (2006). Scaffolding instruction for English language learners: A conceptual framework. International Journal of

Additional Files



How to Cite

Shamsulbahri, M. M., & Zulkiply, N. (2021). EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF DIRECTED ACTIVITY RELATED TO TEXTS (DARTs) AND GENDER ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS IN CHEMISTRY. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 18(1), 157–181. https://doi.org/10.32890/mjli2021.18.1.7