CONCEPTUALIZING CRITICAL THINKING LEARNING TRANSFER MODEL: A QUALITATIVE APPROACH
Keywords:Conceptualization; Critical thinking; Learning transfer; Model; Medical undergraduates; Qualitative; Case study
Purpose â€“ Although there is a growing interest in Critical Thinking Learning Transfer (CTLT), detailed information regarding the transfer seems to be lacking, particularly in the Malaysian context. In addition, past studies have not focused on medical education. This raises the question: How do Malaysian medical undergraduates transfer their critical thinking learning? Thus, this study sought to explore the CTLT process among medical undergraduates in Malaysia, synthesize the CTLT model and present the types of CTLT.
Methodology â€“ A qualitative case study approach was adopted. Eight medical undergraduates were selected using purposive sampling, through two sampling strategies. Data was obtained via in-depth interviews and analysed using thematic analysis.
Findings â€“Three types of CTLT were found, namely near transfer, far transfer, and integrated transfer. Each type of transfer was specified into components. The participantsâ€™ conceptions of the CTLT process led to the development of a model that presented the types of CTLT and provided a better understanding of the extension of occurrence of CTLT among medical undergraduates.
Significance â€“ The CTLT model adds value to the description of the CTLT process among students, especially in the context of the early clinical year medical programme. The model may also influence the future development of critical thinking pedagogies.
Abdul Hamid. (2015). Internasional Conference of Chemistry. In Prospective Critical Thinking and Cognitive Students Based Learning Through Inquiry (pp. 169â€“174). Lambung Mangkurat.
Atabaki, A. M. S., Keshtiaray, N., & Yarmohammadian, M. H. (2015). Scrutiny of critical thinking concept. International Education Studies, 8(3), 93â€“102. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n3p93
Azizi-Fini, I., Hajibagheri, A., & Adib-Hajbaghery, M. (2015). Critical thinking skills in nursing students: A comparison between freshmen and senior students. Nursing and Midwifery Studies, 4(1), 1â€“5.
Badyal, D. K. & Singh, T. (2017). Learning theories: The basics to learn in Medical Education. Int J Appl Basic Med Res 7(1).
Baser, J. A., Hasan, A., & Asha, A. H. (2017). a Study on the Transferable Skills of the Engineering
Students At Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Jurnal Pendidikan Teknologi Dan Kejuruan, 23(3), 257â€“264.
Billing, D. (2007). Teaching for transfer of core/key skills in higher education: Cognitive skills. Higher Education (Vol. 53). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-005-5628-5
Brell, C. D. (1990). Critical Thinking as Transferâ€¯: The Reconstructive Integration of Otherwise Discrete Interpretations of Experience. Educational Theory, 40(1), 1â€“3.
Christie, B., Beames, S., & Higgins, P. (2016). Context , culture and critical thinkingâ€¯: Scottish secondary school teachers â€™ and pupils â€™ experiences of outdoor learning. British Educational Research Journal, 42(3), 417â€“437. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3213
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. (4th ed). USA: SAGE Publications.
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Choosing Among Five Approaches. (4th ed.). California: SAGE Publications LTD.
Ennis, R. H. (2016). Critical Thinking Across the Curriculumâ€¯: A Vision. Science + Bussiness Media, 1â€“20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11245-016-9401-4
Geertsen, R. (2013). Barriers to Critical Thinking Across Domains. Review of Managenemant Innovation & Creativity, 6(20), 52â€“60.
Ghee, L. K. (2016). The history of medicine and health in Malaysia. Selangor: Lim Kean Ghee.
Glaser, R. (1984). Education and Thinking The Role of Knowledge. American Psychologist, 39(2), 93â€“104.
Halpern, D. F. (1998). Teaching Critical Thinking for Transfer Across Domains. American Psychologist, 53(4), 449â€“455.
Halpern, D. F. (2014). Thought & Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking (5th Ed.). New York: Psychology Press.
Haskell, R. E. (2016). Transfer of Learning Cognition, Instruction, and Reasoning. Academic Press (Vol. 6). Biddeford, Maine: Academic Press.
Holland, C., & Ulrich, D. (2016). Critical thinking cards: An innovative teaching strategy to bridge classroom knowledge with clinical decision making. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 11(3), 108â€“112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2016.01.005
Huang, L., Wang, Z., Yao, Y., Shan, C., Wang, H., Zhu, M. & Zhao, X. (2015). Exploring the association between parental rearing styles and medical studentsâ€™ critical thinking disposition in China. BMC Medical Education, 15, 88. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-015-0367-5
Jerome, C., Lee, J. A. C., & Ting, S. H. (2017). What students really need: Instructional strategies that enhance higher order thinking skills (HOTS) among unimas undergraduates. International Journal of Business and Society, 18(S4), 661â€“668.
Khalil, M. K. & Elkhider, I. A. (2016). Applying earning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction. Advances in Physiology Education, 40(2), 147â€“156.
Kilbrink, N., Bjurulf, V., Baartman, L. K. J., & de Bruijn, E. (2018). Transfer of learning in Swedish technical vocational education: student experiences in the energy and industry programmes. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 70(3), 455â€“475. https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820.2018.1437064
Kivunja, C. (2014). Do You Want Your Students to Be Job-Ready with 21st Century Skillsâ€¯? Change Pedagogiesâ€¯: A Pedagogical Paradigm Shift from Vygotskyian Social Constructivism to Critical Thinking , Problem Solving and Siemens â€™ Digital Connectivism, 3(3), 81â€“91. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v3n3p81
Knowles, M. S., Holton III, E. F. & Swanson, R. A. (2005).The adult learner (6th edition). London: Elsevier.
Kolb, D.A. Boyatzis, R. E. & Mainemelis, C. (1999). Experiential Learning Theory: Previous Research and New Directions. Cleveland: Euclid Avenue
Kuhn, D. (1999). A Developmental Model of Critical Thinking. Educational Researcher, 28(2), 16â€“25. https://doi.org/10.2307/1177186
Lai, E. R. (2011). Metacognitionâ€¯: A Literature Review Research Report. Research Reports, (April), 41. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069464
Lim, J. W., Othman, J., & Lo, Y. Y. (2019). Implementing a discipline-specific reflective critical thinking module for Literature in English in Malaysia. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 00(00), 1â€“10. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2019.1567370
Ludin, S. M. (2018). Does good critical thinking equal effective decision-making among critical care nurses? A cross-sectional survey. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 44, 1â€“10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iccn.2017.06.002
Makransky, G., Bonde, M. T., Wulff, J. S. G., Wandall, J., Hood, M., Creed, P. A., â€¦ NÃ¸rremÃ¸lle, A. (2016). Simulation based virtual learning environment in medical genetics counseling: An example of bridging the gap between theory and practice in medical education. BMC Medical Education, 16(1), 1â€“9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-016-0620-6
Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative Research A Guide to Design and Implementation Revised and Expanded from Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education (2th Edition). San Fracisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2016). Qualitative Reserach A Guide to Design and Implementation. San Fracisco: A Wiley Brand.
Njiro, E. (2014). Moving Transfer to Transformative Learning: A Curriculum Model for Adult Educators in Open Distance Learning (ODL). Journal of Educational and Social Research, 4(3), 479â€“486. https://doi.org/10.5901/jesr.2014.v4n3p479
Perkins, D. N., & Salomon, G. (1992). Transfer of learning. In International Encyclopedia of Education (Second Edition.). Pergamon Press.
Peters, S., Clarebout, G., van Nuland, M., Aertgeerts, B., & Roex, A. (2018). A Qualitative Exploration of Multiple Perspectives on Transfer of Learning Between Classroom and Clinical Workplace. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 30(1), 22â€“32. https://doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2017.1339605
Raaijmakers, S. F., Baars, M., Paas, F., van MerriÃ«nboer, J. J. G., & van Gog, T. (2018). Training self-assessment and task-selection skills to foster self-regulated learning: Do trained skills transfer across domains? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 32(2), 270â€“277. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3392
Reece, G. J. (2007). Critical thinking and cognitive transferâ€¯: Implications for the development of online information literacy tutorials. Research Strategies, 20, 482â€“493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resstr.2006.12.018
Rhind, S. M., Shaw, D. J., Bell, C. E., Mellanby, R. J., Hudson, N. P. H., Whittington, R. E., â€¦ Donnelly, R. (2011). The transition into veterinary practice: Opinions of recent graduates and final year students. BMC Medical Education, 11(1), 1â€“10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-11-64
Riesenmy, M. R., Mitchell, S., Hudgins, B. B., & Ebel, D. (2013). Retention and Transfer of Chlldren â€™ s Self-Directed Critical Thinking Skills. The Journal of Educational Research, (March 2015), 37â€“41. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1991.10702808
Roumell, E. A. (2019). Priming Adult Learners for Learning Transfer: Beyond Content and Delivery. Adult Learning, 30(1), 15â€“22. https://doi.org/10.1177/1045159518791281
Sahoo, S., & Mohammed, C. A. (2018). Fostering critical thinking and collaborative learning skills among medical students through a research protocol writing activity in the curriculum. Korean Journal of Medical Education, 30(2), 109â€“118. https://doi.org/10.3946/kjme.2018.86
Seidman, I. (2006). Interviewing as Qualitative Research: A Guide for Researchers in Education and the Social Sciences (Third Ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.
Tibebu, D., Gu, X., Cock, M. De, & Elen, J. (2018). Systematic design of domain-speci fi c instruction on near and far transfer of critical thinking skills. International Journal of Educational Research, 87, 1â€“11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2017.10.005
Turner, K., & Wattanakul, B. (2016). Development of EREC IF Model to Increase Critical Thinking and Creativity Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students. International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Bussiness, and Industrial Engineering, 5(6), 1763â€“1767.
van Peppen, L. M., Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L., Heijltjes, A. E. G., Janssen, E. M., Koopmans, D., & van Gog, T. (2018). Effects of Self-Explaining on Learning and Transfer of Critical Thinking Skills. Frontiers in Education, 3(November), 1â€“11. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2018.00100
Wang, C., Zhang, X., & Yao, M. (2018). Enhancing Chinese college studentsâ€™ transfer of learning through service-learning. Studies in Higher Education, 0(0), 1â€“16. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2018.1435635
Winston Sieck. (2013). Critical Thinking in Decision Making. Global Cognition, 1â€“2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.12.001
Yin, R. K. (2014). Case Study Research Design and Methods. (5th Ed.). California: SAGE Publications.
Yue, M., Zhang, M., Zhang, C., & Jin, C. (2017). The effectiveness of concept mapping on development of critical thinking in nursing education: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nurse Education Today 52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2017.02.018
Zabit, M. N. M., Karagiannidou, E., & Zacharia, T. Z. (2016). Teaching business in Malaysia and the use of PBL to nurture studentsâ€™ critical thinking: A case study of Sultan Idris Education University. Geografia - Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 12(6), 1â€“11.
Zvauya, R., Purandare, S., Young, N., & Pallan, M. (2017). The Use of Mind Maps as an Assessment Tool in a Problem Based Learning Course. Creative Education, 08(11), 1782â€“1793. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2017.811122
How to Cite
The Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) has taken all reasonable measures to ensure that material contained in this website is the original work of the author(s). However, the Journal gives no warranty and accepts no responsibility for the accuracy or the completeness of the material; no reliance should be made by any user on the material. The user should check with the authors for confirmation.
Articles published in the Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) do not represent the views held by the editors and members of the editorial board. Authors are responsible for all aspects of their articles except the editorial screen design.