• Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohammad Azam Hussain School of Law, Universiti Utara Malaysia
  • Dr. Mohamad Fateh Labanieh School of Law, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Dr. Nazli Mahdzir National Water Services Commission, Malaysia
  • Dr. Nooraini Sulaiman Institute of Technology Management and Entrepreneurship, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
  • Dr. Omar Saleh Abdullah Bawazir Faculty of Law, Hadramout University, Fowa, Yemen



Arbitration, Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence Arbitrator, Dispute Resolution Mechanism, Islamic Arbitration


Arbitration is the most widespread mechanism for resolving disputes in the modern and Islamic eras. The current global tendency calls for an increase in the integration of disruptive technology, such as artificial intelligence (AI), into arbitration. Using doctrinal legal research methodology, this article examines the potential prospect of artificial intelligence (AI) in arbitration from international, national, and Islamic perspectives. To achieve that, several international arbitration laws, such as the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards 1958 and UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985, national arbitration laws, such as Arbitration Act 2005 (Act 646), UK Arbitration Act 1996, and Singaporean Arbitration Act 2011, and the Islamic law were analysed. The collected data was analytically and critically analysed using the content analysis method. It is found that AI technologies would bring added value to arbitration if they are appropriately employed. However, from a legal perspective, arbitration laws are not mature enough to absorb AI technologies. Besides, it has been discovered that Islam does not prohibit AI technologies as long as they can serve humanity. According to the Islamic point of view, an artificial intelligence arbitrator (AIA) cannot replace human arbitrators. Finally, this article provides several recommendations to enhance the use of AI technologies and AIA in arbitration. This, in turn, would help in creating a modern, prosperous, and just world and improving the international relations between nations, international organisations, and individuals from different countries as any of them could resolve their disputes effectively.

Author Biography

Dr. Mohamad Fateh Labanieh, School of Law, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia



Al-Anshari, I. A.Y. Z. (1994). Fath al-Wahhab bi Syarh Minhaj al-Tullab. Dar al-Fikr: Beirut.

Al-Mawardi. (2006). Aadab al-Dunya wa al-Din, Beirut, Dar al-Kutub al-Alamiyah.

Al-Qurashi, Z. (2004). “Arbitration Under the Islamic Sharia.” International Commercial Arbitration, 3(5), 1-14.

Bawazir, O.S.A. & Hussain, M.A. (2018). “The Qualifications of Arbitral Tribunal: Perspectives of Shariah Law and UNCITRAL Model Law.” The Journal of Social Sciences Research, 7(6), 1213-1217.

Born, G. (2009). International Commercial Arbitration. The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.

Cusairi, R. M., & Zahraa, M. (2015). “Conditions And Qualifications Of A Mediator-Arbitrator In The Resolution Of Family Disputes.” Journal Of Islam And Science, 2(2), 263–284.

Daneshgar, M. (2020). “The Future of Islam and Science: Philosophical Grounds.” Journal of Religion & Science, 55(4), 1-19.

Hart, R. D. (2018). Saudi Arabia’s Robot Citizen Is Eroding Human Rights, Quartz,, [retrieved 3 June 2022].

Hossain, M.S. (2013). “Arbitration in Islamic Law for the Treatment of Civil and Criminal Case: An Analytical Overview.” Journal of Philosophy, Culture and Religion, 1(5), 1-13.

Islam web .(2013). Islam web., [retrieved 3 June 2022].

Islamic Studies. (2022). Islamic studies., [retrieved 5 June 2022].

Ikram, N.A. H. B. S., & Kepli, M. Y.B. Z. (2018). “Establishing Legal Rights and Liabilities for Artificial Intelligence.” IIUM Law Journal, 26(1), 161-181.

KLDiscovery (2022). KLDiscovery., [retrieved 9 May 2022].

Labanieh, M. F., Hussain, M. A., & Mahdzir, N. (2020). “E-Arbitration: A Way Forward to Improve Quality and Service Delivery in Malaysian Dispute Resolution Industry.” Journal of International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 9(3), 136-141.

Ketchell, M. (2017). Why using AI to sentence criminals is a dangerous idea, The Conversation., [retrieved 19 May 2022].

Labanieh, M. F., Hussain, M. A., & Mahdzir, N. (2019). “Arbitration As A Mechanism To Resolve Islamic Banking Disputes In Malaysia: Challenges And Drawbacks.” UUM Journal of Legal Studies,10(2), 19-44.

Labanieh, M. F., & Hussain, M. A. (2020). “The Innovative Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Arbitral Tribunal: Malaysian Perspective.” International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(6s), 1681-1687.

Maita, A. (2014). “Arbitration of Islamic Financial Disputes.” Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law, 20(1), 35-71.

McCarthy, J. (2007). What is artificial intelligence? Technical report, Stanford University. http://www-formal., [retrieved 1 May 2022].

Micron .(2022). Micron., [retrieved 15 June 2022].

Obermeyer, Z. & Mullainathan, S. (2019). “Dissecting Racial Bias in an Algorithm that Guides Health Decisions for 70 Million People.” Paper presented at the Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency, p. 89-115.

Oxford. (1969), The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd edition, UK: Oxford.

Paisley, K., & Sussman, E. (2018). “Artificial Intelligence Challenges and Opportunities for International Arbitration.” New York Dispute Resolution Lawyer, 11(1), 35-40.

Rlawyers. (2013). Women Arbitrators and Sharia. Rlawyers.[retrieved 9 June 2022].

Robot Lawyer Lisa. (2022). Robot Lawyer Lisa.[retrieved 10 June 2022].

Saleh, S. (1984). Commercial Arbitration in the Arab Middle East: Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, 2nd edition. London: Lexgulf Publishers Ltd.

Salge, C. (2017). Asimov's Laws Won't Stop Robots from Harming Humans, So We’ve Developed a Better Solution.[retrieved 1 June 2022].

Soper, J. P. H. (1959). A Treatise on the Law and Practice of Arbitrations and Awards for Surveyors, Valuers, Auctioneers and Estate Agents, 8th edition, David M. Lawrence (ed.,), London: The Estates Gazette Limited.

Siarelis .(2022). Superintendencia de Sociedades., [retrieved 5 May 2022].

Triggs, R. (2019). Android Authority., [retrieved 5 May 2022].

Tikamdas, R. & Azad, E. (2016). “Arbitrators,” in Arifin Zakaria, Sundra Rajoo and Philip Koh (ed.,), Arbitration in Malaysia: A Practical Guide, Sweet & Maxwell.

Vanna. (2022). Vanna., [retrieved 19 May 2022].

Wang, F. F. (2018). Online Arbitration, New York: Informa Law from Routledge.

Yaacob, H. (2014). “Shariah Arbitration in Islamic Finance Transaction: An Urgent Need for Muslim Arbitrators.” Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 22(1), 205-221.

Zahraa, M., & Hak, A. N. (2006). “Tahkim (Arbitration) in Islamic Law within the Context of Family Disputes.” Arab Law Quarterly, 20(1), 1-42.

Zamora, E. E. M. (2018). “Panorama actual y futuro de la inteligencia artificial en el arbitraje internacional: implementaciones, obstáculos y consideraciones jurídicas.” In Revista Costarricense de Derecho Internacional. San José: Costa Rica. p. 6-24.

Additional Files



How to Cite

Hussain, M. A., Labanieh , M. F., Mahdzir, N., Sulaiman, N., & Abdullah Bawazir, O. S. (2023). THE POTENTIAL PROSPECT OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) IN ARBITRATION FROM THE INTERNATIONAL, NATIONAL AND ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES. Journal of International Studies, 19(1), 95–122.