• İbrahim Özdemir Uskudar University, Istanbul-Turkey


This paper will discuss the role of critical and creative thinking in preparing new generations to respond to the challenges threatening our societies today and in the future. We have been living in an ever interconnected and changing globalized world. Therefore, climate change, migration, international terrorism, financial meltdowns, poverty, injustices, and inequalities challenge and threaten the global community as a whole. If we want generations to come with new solutions and alternatives to solve these challenges, we must prepare them with critical thinking skills. It will suggest that the Qur'an and Sunnah of the Prophet were sources and driving forces of critical spirit in the classical Muslim legacy and kindled spirit of burning for learning. Therefore, this paper will attempt to define major concepts first and then delineate the significant features of critical and creative thinking in al-Ghazali's exemplary life and teachings.        


Açıkgenç, A. (2014). Islamic: scientific tradition in history, Institut Kefahaman islam Malaysia (İKİM), Kuala Lumpur.
Asad, M. (1980). The Message of The Qur’ān, Dar al-Andalus: Gibraltar.
Al-Ghazālī, A. (2001). Al-Munqidh min al-Ḍalāl: Deliverance from Error (M. Abūlaylah, Trans.). Washington: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy.
Al-Ghazali, (1980). Al-Munqidh min al-Dalal: Freedom and Fulfillment: An Annotated Translation of Al-Ghazali’s al-Munqidh min al-Dalal and other relevant works. Tr. Richard Joseph McCarthy. Boston: Twayne Publishers.
Facione, Dr. Peter A. (1990) “The Delphi Report”, The California Academic Press, . Oct. 1, 2020.
Isham, J.-Waage, S., McKibben, B. eds. (2007). Ignition: What You Can Do to Fight Global Warming and Spark A Movement. Island Press, Washington, DC
Lings, M. (1983). Muhammad: his life based on the earliest sources. New York: Inner Traditions International, 1983.
Lourdes R. Quisumbing, Ph.D. "Citizenship Education for Better World Societies: A Holistic Approach". Paper read at the 8th UNESCO APEID International Conference on Education 29 November 2002, Bangkok.
<>. Accessed: Oct. 20.2020.
Haykal, M.H. (1976). The life of Muhammad. Trans from 8th edition by Ismail Ragi A. al Faruqi. USA: North American Trust Publication.
Kuhn, T. S. (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McCarthy, R. (1980). Freedom and Fufilment: An Annotated Translation of al-Ghazālī's al- Munqidh min al-ḍalāl and Other Relevant Works of al-Ghazālī. Boston: Library of Classical Arabic Literature.
NCEE. (1983). National Commission on Excellence in Education A nation at risk: The impera- tive for educational reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
OECD Future of Education & Skills. (2018). Paris.
Rosenthal, F. (2007). Knowledge Triumphant: The Concept of Knowledge in Medieval Islam, Brill, Leiden.
Weinberg, G.M., (2011). An Introduction to General Systems Thinking, Weinberg & Weinberg.
Yasin, A.H. (2016). Al-Munqidh mina al-Ḍalāl in English With Special Focus on Retranslation. A thesis submitted to the University of Salford for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The School of Humanities, Languages & Social Sciences. Accessed Oct 20, 2020.
How to Cite
ÖZDEMIR, İbrahim. CRITICAL THINKING AND INNOVATION: AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE. Journal of Technology and Operations Management, [S.l.], v. 15, n. 2, p. 33-41, dec. 2020. ISSN 2590-4175. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 14 apr. 2021. doi: