Manuscript Guideline

General Text
• Manuscripts should be written in English, typed on one side of the A4 paper, double spaced with a margin of 1” on the left- and 1” on the right hand-side, Times New Roman and font size 12.
• Each manuscript should not exceed 20 pages (10-20 pages), excluding references, notes, and appendices.
• Do not use all caps for any text.
• Grammar, spelling, and punctuation corrections must be made.
• Adverb phrases do not need to be hyphenated (e.g., actively managed, not actively-managed).
• Bullet points or small roman numerals (e.g., (i), (ii), etc.) may be used to list items.
• Please indicate the location of the figures and tables in the text.
• Dates should be written as 1980 to 1990 in the text. 1980–90 or 1980–1990 is okay for tables although it should be consistent.

Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

• The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions.
• The abstract must be able to stand alone. For this reason, references and non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided. If the abbreviations are essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
• The abstract should be single-spaced and not more than 150 words.

• Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords.
• Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


• Use the percent symbol (%) for percentages, not the word “percent.”
• Lengthy mathematical proofs and very extensive detailed tables should be placed in an appendix or omitted entirely.
• All equations, except very short mathematical expressions, should be displayed on a separate line and centered.
• Equations should be numbered consecutively in the right margin with Arabic numerals in parentheses.
• References to variables in the body of the paper (after its introduction and in equations), whether a name or letter, should be italicized. Examples: p-value, t-statistic, Dummy-Year.

Sections and Subsections
• Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to "the text". Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
• Section 1 should be the ‘Introduction’ section. State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. The final paragraph of the introduction should outline the remainder of the paper.

• Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals and must have a title and descriptive legend.
• Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters.
• Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

• Figures are numbered with Arabic numerals and must have a caption. There should also be a descriptive legend if necessary to explain what the figure shows.
• Indicate the location of the figures in the margin of the text of the paper.
• Figures must be camera-ready with all axes labeled.

• Illustrations must be in a camera-ready form.
• Captions should be typed double-spaced in sequence on a separate sheet of paper.
• Photographs, if any, should be large, clear, glossy prints, showing high-contrast.
• Each should be identified on the back, complete with the author’s name and the number of the illustrations.

• Number footnotes consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers
• Do not include footnotes in the Reference List.

• Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise.
• List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

• Appendices should be lettered A, B, C, etc.
• If there is only one appendix, there is no need to letter it A.
• Tables within an appendix should be lettered AI.
• Equations within the appendix should be numbered A1, A2, etc.

Citations and References
• APA citation style should be adopted for in-text citations and a reference list